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 on: January 01, 2009, 08:07:00 PM 
Started by Seneca - Last post by Seneca

"Living faith includes the doubt about itself, the courage to take this doubt into itself and the risk of courage." /Paul Tillich (Dynamics of Faith, p.102)/ Even Jesus so honestly expressed this doubt in those dark moments in the garden of Gethsemane. From that standpoint alone - one can consider modern American Christianity and its nemesis, Arabian Islam, as examples of something OTHER than living faiths - from a historical standpoint. The actual beliefs are something privately held and OTHER than the Orthodoxy. Islamic propaganda wants us to believe in an ahistorical truth, is aiming to convert Westerners with that! Has History lost the power of evidenciary analysis? Luther's motto: "Sola fides sufficit" /Justification by faith alone/ must still apply because nobody knows nor can know the whole truth, but the path to the Truth must be set rightly.by Seneca

I find it ironic that the following is written in the holy book of Islam, the Qur'an:

98.6.: "Those who reject (Truth), among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists, will be in Hell-Fire, to dwell therein. They are the worst of creatures."

What follows will give a hint as to why I find it ironic.

The famous Stoic philosopher, Marcus Aennius Seneca, once wrote "PER ASPERA AD ASTRA" ('through hardship/suffering towards the stars').

To which Anselmus of Canterbury (in Cure Deus Homo) added: "CREDO UT INTELLEGAM." /I believe to be able to understand/

All men of significance struggled in their lives towards success either in the intellectual or deeply practical spheres of existence. But it should not be too hard to unmask the political intent served by a religious garment in the modern Arabian interpreters of Quran who are trying to box Western achievements.

The component in the present day conflict with Islam (which although unstated by the Media is all the more pressing in reality) is the idea that Quran reported something unique for its time (1400 years ago) which has to be made to look like it is proof enough of God's handiwork.

But evidence (for which the public never has time) points to the contrary conclusion:

`Abdullah (b. Mas'ud) reported that Allah's Messenger ... said:

"Verily your creation is on this wise. The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother's womb in the form of blood [sperm?], after which it becomes a clot of blood in another period of forty days. Then it becomes a lump of flesh and forty days later Allah sends his angel to it ..."

- al-Bukhari, 8.593; Muslim Kitab an-Nikah, 2002

The above is a quote from past findings of ancient Islamic science of exegesis - and totally incorrect in terms of modern scientific finds.

Whither The Western Converts?

This brings me to my point of perplexity over the issue of Western "converts" to Islam and their participation in things foreign, Islamic in nature.

How could they choose a petrified religious remnant of a once glittering (but to them totally foreign) Arabian Civilization - whose historical time has passed long ago? Perhaps the converts, although ostensibly Western in nature, are not steeped in Western ways, are not proud of their European ancestry and are aghast at witnessing the double-faced nature of the Western relationship with the generally spiritually-low and generally greedy Muslim orbis terrarum (the world of the spiritual Fellahdom). This Arab "Ummah" (the circle of the spiritualy elect of the Islamic universe) is double-faced in the sense that while money-dealings are paramount - religion excuses everything. This religiously-sanctioned hypocrisy is exploited by Western ruling circles hand over fist in deals with the Arab and south Asian Muslim potentates (and their families) in these cynical oil, finance, joint venture and construction deals designed for raw profit at the expense of every other statesmanlike consideration in total oblivion to the ongoing spiritual war between the West and the (Middle-) East.

Academics share a duty to pursue and speak the Truth - even if it is dire (which is often the case). It is a fact that Western cultural values are symbolically and livingly incompatible with Islamic cultural values - no less than Emperor Hadrian's ill-fated new Pagan Jerusalem City project known as 'Aelia Capitolina' had been in contrast to the indigenous Hebrew-Aramean (Jewish) historical town grown around the Temple of Solomon (Jerusalem proper)].

Without going into the political details of filthy geopolitical horse-trading (for the sake of which small countries are thrown under the bus - and Saudi power is extending into the Balkans) it suffices to say that the corrupt ruling clique of Saudi Arabia (including its terror-enthralled minions, and lesser peers - like the Kuwaiti emirs) and their perfidious counterparts in Western capitals, in which parts of Europe and America are sold-off and contracts won in turn, financing the rising propaganda power of Islam (which is very effective, and squarely pointed against everything non-Islamic in origin or tendency) - but evaluated not against the intellectual Islam of the brilliant age contemporary with the so-called European 'Middle Ages' - but instead weighed against the primitive thought of the crudely-interpreted, half-educated and glorified camelback readings of the Quran that are effectively disseminated for desperate human herds, the masses in a terrifying sense - among whom always lurk those psychotic, part-thoughtless, but all the more tense, would-be legions of Islamic kamikazes. Only from such quasi-intellectual background do these comical literal interpretations of Islam spring - those that are in all seriousness blow-horned from atop the bully-pulpits of mosques. American leaders are promoting "their" Arabs against the influence of northern ones under the natural Russian patronage.

The 'Alaqa' Controversy (The Failed 'Quranic Embryology' Proof Attempt)

For example, never mind the fact an ancient science of Quranic exegesis (the science of interpolation of religious texts by the great schools) is extinguished, and we are told from the mosque pulpits in all seriousness that the Quranic word 'alaqa' is a proof that God wrote the Quran because only He would have been in the position to know that those 'blod clots' (alaqas) are the same as 'clinging cells' (which is what the propaganda wants us to believe) which is not what the Quran instructs! Again, never mind that the Arabic word "alaqa" has nothing to do with the exclusively Western discovery of the fact of cellular structure of all life (and of the Western numen "cell" assigned to this discovery in deference to the Latin word "cella" which had designated the enclosed inner room of pagan temples) - 'alaqa' has nothing to do with "cell".

In fact, the entire skimpy set of speculatively extracted Quranic quotations regarding embryology - as far as my examination could determine - reveals the overwhelming presence of ancient Greek medical misconceptions, most notably of Galen (Hadrian's personal physician who had his own famous clinic in the Anatolian city of Pergamum).

"The final stage of human development which the Qur'an describes is the reation of bones, and the clothing of bones with flesh. However,according to modern embryologists including Prof. Moore, the tissue from which bone originates, known as mesoderm, is the same tissue as that from which muscle ("flesh") develops [K. L. Moore, op. cit.(1998), pp. 56, 63, chapters 15 and 16]. Thus bone and muscles begin to develop simultaneously, rather than sequentially. Whereas however most of the muscle tissue that we have is laid down before birth, bones continue to develop and calcify (strengthen with calcium) right into one's teenage years. So far from bones being clothed with flesh, it would be more accurate if the Qur'an had said that muscles started to develop at the same time as bones, but completed their development earlier. The idea that bones are clothed with flesh is not only scientifically completely false, but is directly copied from the ancient Greek doctor Galen."

- according to the research by a noted British doctor "Lactantius"

But, the methodic soul, legendary Greek physician Galen reported the following (identical in finding to the Islamic ideas):

"The time has come for nature to articulate the organs precisely and to bring all the parts to completion. Thus it caused flesh to grow on and around all the bones, and at the same time ... it made at the ends of the bones ligaments that bind them to each other, and along their entire length it placed around them on all sides thin membranes, called periosteal, on which it caused flesh to grow."

- Corpus Medicorum Graecorum: Galeni de Semine (Galen: On Semen)

Modern Islamic theology ought to keep a dignified stance and confine itself to the symbolic interpretation of the Quran, as an Islamic scholar, Dr. Naik of India, stated: "Quran is a book of signs - not a book of science." But the Arab demagogues in the preacher garb want us to believe that Prophet Muhammed was an illiterate ignoramus who could only have produced his successes by an act of providential Divine intervention and not on the strength of his talents (but this had to be - to justify the Islamic World-view in which a sovereign human personality in the Western sense never existed as it was inconceivable).

The Incompatible Nature of Islam And The European Civilization

So what factors influenced the converts' decision to become, ostensibly, Muslim ? This personal act is there to please something, isn't it? - and no less than those numerous conversion-pronouncements, so fashionable among Americans, smacking of shallow pleasure-seeking conversions for the immediate cleansing of sins. It produces sects on the strength of momentary enthusiasm for a novel interpretation of another select or obscure line from a religious collection, which is fit for religious demagogues but not for the deeply personal, deeply portrait-oriented, biographical souls of true men of the Western Culture - those of the cast of men for whom Martin Luther's great Protestant revolution in the 1500's provided a grim liberation from the powers of (Roman) priesthood - handing his followers to a lifelong quest for salvation along the pathway of continuous, self-doubting, self-overcoming, proud self-confession series - the dialogue with oneself, the wrestle with oneself, being one's own priest - as every portrait by Rembrandt reveals for those with the soulful eyes to perceive.

What I find saddest of all - is that their external imprisonment under a ton of Islamic etiquette, vacuous pageantry (of the kind that British royals indulge in - in another sense) and punctual adherence to religious customs that have their origin far away from any possibility of a Western understanding (and yet - perhaps only because of the spiritual death of the West in modern times are such exercises even tolerable?!) - is matched only by their spiritual destitueness because their conversion did not make them into better persons, nor did it give them much happiness - for all the old problems are still there and plaguing them - and they quixotically seek companionship in the last analysis because they cannot stand on their own.

Historically speaking, Islamic theological foundation was built in the period of 0 to 500 AD and not after Muhammed, because the metaphysical stock of ideas upon which the Quran is premised grew-up on ancient Christian soil. Therefore, Islam has always been organized into brotherhoods for whom "Holy War" was raison d'etre, just as early Christian, Jewish, "Oriental-Pagan," and lesser Aramean sects were actual orders of the electi of a hidden faith for whom the war on unbelievers was an essential tenet of religious mandate. The late "Roman" persecutions of Christians must be viewed in this light (as well as the Christian persecutions of the opposition).

Architectural elements reveal the opposition of Islam and Europe, the cupola versus the flying buttress, the algebraic number-variable versus the differential integer, magic circle versus Infinity, a melted down Ego in submission versus an upright Ego in conquest...

The Janissary Paradigm: A Historically-Effective Conversion

There had been one successful example of a conversion-policy which was more of a State's race-policy than a strictly religious policy. The Turkish race-policy was known in the Balkan tradition as "tribute in blood" whereby the Turkish horsemen swooped select Christian villages to kidnap healthy boys of sound stock in order to raise them in Istanbul as 'children of the Sultan' - to become the elite crackforce of Turkish Janissaries whose determination to die under the green banners of Islam and to impress their spiritual leader at the Porte (the Sultan) produced singular acts of heroism and self-sacrifice in battle, This was a far more effective form of conversion (never mind the occasional nightmares by some Janissaries in which they saw their mothers sobbing and screaming as their boys were snatched away from their bosoms) - than the one that loads all the messy personal baggage along into the spiritual bazaar with a hope of sticking. Janissary boys were raised by a far more subtly intelligent Islam (Sufi training) than the one that today trains Islamic fighters - which makes converts unreliable (none of the major successful terrorist acts against the West have so far been committed by Western converts).

But, "PARVA LEVES CAPIUNT ANIMOS" ('insignificant spirits are won over by petty acts' - as philosopher/poet Ovidius stated) - and this may be the reason why Western converts have made no name for themselves. One need not have outward acts of religious nature to amount to something - as long as he is, a priori, a something (possessing spiritual substance - the fuelof History).

Protestant theologian Paul Tillich stated in "Dynamics of Faith" (p.42):

"Knowledge of reality has never the certitude of complete evidence. The process of knowing is infinite. Characteristic of [symbolic view] is that it opens up levels of reality which otherwise are closed to us. All arts create symbols for a level of reality which cannot be reached in any other way [by a
human mind]. A picture and a poem reveal elements of reality which cannot be approached scientifically. There are within us dimensions of which we cannot become aware except through symbols, as melodies and rhythms in music [which (I might add) are resonant in race-differences]."

 on: January 01, 2009, 07:56:50 PM 
Started by Seneca - Last post by Seneca

The historical counterweight to the rule of city-law has always been the rights of the successful party. For Sons of Nature at heart - paper-rights that somehow guarantee their freedom in the Nature of Cosmos would feel like an insult! That is why - for the sons of a city - paper rights are everything because they surrendered themselves to a prescribed and so all the more artificial methods of existence, in prison-like corridors and shielded by walls from the country at large. It is a fact that for a peasant of sound stock, in Europe, and in fact, the world over, these liberal ideas of freedom never amount to anything of substance. He is also far too shrewd not to see through an intellectual city-dweller. It is just thanks to the shallow roots of American existence on the soil of North America that prevented anyone from having a peasant relation to the soil (not even the hunter-gatherer native Indians, for the most part, had that sort of relation). Instead, America used to have farmers. Farmers are, by definition, just managers of land, its exploiters who can move-on whenever it suits them to do so. A peasant, on the other hand, stakes his existence on his roots in the soil, on his actual possession of the land. Like a plant, he is the fullest animal expression of pure plantlike growth, a race at its clearest level. I am sure that Sorel wanted to be another Plato with his ideal republic in hand, all perfectly outlined on a scroll. It's just that Sorel, unlike the brave Plato, never attempted to put his ideals into practice, so he can feel the bitter nature of failure or the defeat of idealism. I suppose Sorel chose the easier path - and hypocritically attempted to convince his audience that this ideal exists in practice somewhere.....by Seneca
(conservative libertarian)

Let us however face facts courageously and not be side-stepped by idealistic concepts.

There is no exaggeration in the fact that a plethora of private Western interests accosts every foreign policy move the West makes under an unfortunate boot of statesmanship-instincts-free American leadership (certainly on ignominious world-display since Wilson) - like a cloud of scavenging flies around a corpse of an American foreign policy - which has made the so-called "Iraqi War" nothing more than an 'American Business War in Iraq'. (I do not have to cite the various types that flocked under the banner of "Mission Accomplished" to prove this fact (with conflicting or not interests), although it suffices to take note of various security cowboys on the ground with a private gain purpose in mind, oil companies, truckers, dubious financiers with deep strings in Washington, gangsters, Al-Qaeda missionaries, Iranian agents, etc.). In the point of Historic significance - the so-called "liberation" of Iraq was nothing more than another consequence of the fact that an ancient civilization had collapsed - and its soil-bound, peasant-mentality-dominated hapless survivors are being toyed with and exploited by a cluster of predatory foreign powers, no more and no less than the disconcerted Roman population of the fallen Classical Imperium had been in the 5th and the 6th century at the hands of the northern barbarians (as well as domestic bandit-groups like "Gangs of Bula"), or the fallen Egyptian Imperium had had to endure after the fall of the "New Kingdom" (when its history turned it into a juggling object changing foreign hands from century to century) - and especially so in the case of the Chinese "Middle Kingdom" (i.e. "Orbis Terrarum") after the Yellow Turban revolt which spelled an end to the proud Age of Han (a global turbulence coinciding with the fall of the Roman Imperium for reasons beyond the scope of this commentary). The homeland of the Arabian Civilization, Mesopotamia (Iraq), has also been introduced to this state of things in the Cosmos of Nature after the bloody series of revolutionary centuries (8th and 9th) resulting in the rise of the Turkomen praetorians who then proceeded to carve up the Arabian world into their own fiefdoms serving their own private interests (starting with the "First Sultan" Alp Arslan and his descendants) under a mask of Quranic platitudes and divine exoneration (at least they allowed (symbolically) the Caliph to continue living in Baghdad under a virtual city-arrest as their religious-political puppet in order to preserve the nominal legitimacy of their usurpation of rule).

A united imperium (like that which we call "China"), overall, is rather an exception than a rule in its long History, because the shadow population, that puzzling mix of basic survival and refined intellect, a trait which Herodotus noted on his travels in ancient Egypt (another example of a politically fallen, internally exhausted, imperium), clings on to the traditions and viewpoints that have been inbred through the strong cultural inheritance factor. To be sure, various tendencies continue their uneasy existence under an umbrella of Fellahdom, eternal barbarism in the beast of man, peasant preoccupation with continuous survival in the soil of Nature, refined intellect of a few dilapidated urban centers that linger on impervious to the goings-on around them, - all combine to form a precarious state of things in a population-field of a fallen imperium.

The following quote from an excellent book by the late Iris Chang, "The Rape of Nanking" (in itself an operation no different than any other operation in which a foreign barbarian horde (from the standpoint of the civilized locals, anyway) took a possession of a location by force), and for that matter Scipio (the Younger's) Roman legions before Carthage, Alarich's chieftains and their retinues in Rome, Gua Feng's Mongols in Song China's capital Lin'an, Russians in Berlin, Americans in Iraq, etc. - reveals the metaphysical difference between the conquering natures and the stark historical nature of a spiritually-defeated Fellah-mentality (through the eyes of a Japanese soldier):

"I thought how could they become prisoners, with the kind of force they had - more than two battalions -
and without even trying to show any resistance. There must have been a considerable number of officers
but all of them slipped away and escaped. Although we had two companies, and those seven thousand
prisoners had already been disarmed, our troops could have been annihilated had they decided to rise up and revolt.

They all walked in droves, like ants crawling on the ground.
They looked like a bunch of homeless people, with ignorant expressions on their faces.
A herd of ignorant sheep, marched on in the darkness, whispering to each other.
They hardly looked like the enemy who only yesterday was shooting at and troubling us. It was impossible to believe they were the enemy soldiers.

It felt quite foolish to think that we have been fighting to the death against these ignorant slaves."

(most were soon thereafter shot in the night)

I can imagine that in America, unless the White races go totally extinct, the so-called trailer-trash and countryfolk would form a population-basis of a fellah-world of the future West in its fallen imperium state of things. Let us not think for a moment that the metropoleis which dominated our entire wakeful existence today will prove strong enough to defy History. Alexandria, the gem of the Classical Imperium, lost its citizens, just like New York City shall some day, not because they were conquered, murdered or forced out - but because they gave it up once the financial system collapsed. Cities are a sustained by money only and money is an intellectual force. Once the intellect exhausts itself, it takes up a life of books in surviving libraries - but it is no longer a factor (let alone the dominant!) of real life. Race always re-conquers intellect. As Marcus Aennius Seneca wisely warned:

['Immortal gods, though slow, are certain punishers of Mankind' -
"Sunt di immortales lenti quidem, sed certi vindices generis humani." - Seneca (Controversiae, V)]

The truly decisive factors in human History have always been bands of warlike men (an organized minority) and not masses of populace (human herds) - and the so-called American War in Iraq is another case in point on this subject - because it took (let us say) 100,000 soldiers to conquer a country of 25 million to "liberate it" - as if a population in such numbers could not have made short work of the Saddam regime of fear had it wanted to. The same politics-fearing passivity in the face of violent facts of Nature greeted Americans and the Arab terrorists in Iraq (giving them that false sense of security) as had greeted Alaric's barbarians on their grand 'tour de force' through the sulking shell of a 'Roman Empire' after 378 AD, or the Western imperialists of the 19th century who were roaming around the Qing China - "doing business" with treasure charts, bibles and guns, swirling around the stunned Chinese fellahs who either hated them or ignored them altogether, but who, ultimately, paid the bills of the barbarians in their own native blood (as they became the cannon fodder of willy private schemes they could never understand nor inwardly appreciate). The Qing became wise only in the end when they appropriated the popular anger.

Historian Hans Delbruck already discovered the fact that Germanic barbarians (and their lesser Scythian-type competitors from "Russia") were outnumbered at least 10-1 by the population-strength of the fallen Roman Imperium which could have been mustered to face-off the swarms of foreign private interests bent on plundering and ruling, but it never happened. As that inspired strongman, the Visigoth leader, Alarich, noted to those terrifying fellow-men (his commanders) with scars, animal skins and weaponry of various dreadful kind (both made and captured) forming his tribal council, "The thicker the grass - the easier to mow it." - a remark he contemptuously made upon observing the gathering of the masses of men mustered in panic by the haggardly Roman population of the nearby Alpine province of Rhaetia through which he would have to cross to reach Italy.

Alarich, Alp Arslan, Charles Gordon, Blackwater Securities, etc. - figure all the same from this high vantage point.

As for the fact that private interests found it convenient to jump on the bandwagon of national security to exploit the "Iraq War" of the 2nd Bush leadership facade, I will quote Hedrick Smith's "The Power Game":

"About the same time [1974] court decisions made it legal for government contractors to have PACs
(a practice previously barred for fear that the PACs of government contractors would be used to buy influence).
The court decisions making corporate PACs legal was a watershed." [p.32]

These PAC's and similar lobby groups (some with direct access to the White House) have profited from the war in Iraq. The good of the American public has nothing to do with it.

It ought to come as no surprise that a super-liberal Warren Court (which opened the legal floodgates to the lowest strata of America's societies) would make such stupendous concessions (on PACs) to the top-layers of interlocking corporate directorship class and its flock of financier-parvenus, for liberal Economic Socialism has always been the political battering ram for large-scale private interests based on financial assets who needed to expand against the old forces. The property-beholding class of the Southern plantation-aristocracy was a monumental obstacle to the expropriating power of money. The Gracchi brothers perhaps never knew why the Equites supported them in their social reforms.

History has always been shaped by power minorities of resolute force-men, men of fact, for whom death is not an obstacle. It always remains as the prima facie duty of the power of the minority circle to make itself spiritually in sync with its population-object and serve as the best representative of the community-interests of the whole (which cuts across social classes) - this alone makes a nation powerful - and in form for the tasks of History.

One example in this regard is the story of the Teutonic Knighthood, and its spiritual descendant-class of the Prussian Officer Corps (an extinguished being-stream since 1944/1947, which is why Germany is politically comatose).

 on: November 23, 2008, 11:36:15 AM 
Started by Seneca - Last post by Seneca
Fellow forum members and guests - here comes the link to the PDF-format based presentation of "Race In History" idea, which is factual and very hard to analyze using regular every day science methods of analysis.

I do believe however that the author did a good job in breaking a new analytical ground for the nascent science for History in this presentation.

Will Dr. Spengler's "Morphology of History" discovery finally receive academic and scholastic life-line it has been beckoning for all these years since the irreplaceable death of this momentous man ?


 on: January 17, 2008, 10:11:54 AM 
Started by Northlander - Last post by Northlander
It Might Have Happened To You - by Guy Aldred & John Wynn
ISBN 978-0-906879-10-8
Published by Historical Review Press.

Aimed specifically at a British readership this book describes itself as an account of;
"Britain's 'Guantanamo Bay' - a contemporary wartime account of how British citizens were arrested and imprisoned without trial under 'Defence Regulation 18b'.

This book is in effect a reprint and upgrade of an earlier book published in 1943 by a recently released inmate of one of Britain's civilian detention camps.
The publishers intend the re-publishing of this book to draw parallels with the panic driven Defence Regulation 18b of 1940 and the mass arrests and imprisonment without charge of thousands of political radicals plus none British aliens, with the current rush of 'emergency powers' being sought by British and European governments to counter the supposed Islamic and "world terrorist threat."
(In the USA the Patriot Act etc. has a similar motivation)
The book is published by a radical publishing house given to publishing works of interest to the political far-Right fringes, but leaving that aside, the book is an interesting insight into how a supposed democracy can put its statutes of freedom on hold and mass arrest and intern without charge its own citizens for extended periods of time, without any kind of trial or explanation.
The anecdotal accounts of arrest, mistreatment and petty tyranny makes unpleasant reading.
There is little doubt that fear of a 'Fifth Column' in Britain in 1940 drove the mass arrests of native fascists, political radicals and anti-war activists in a catch all campaign of arrests.
It does not take a great leap of imagination to see such situations repeated now in the 21st Century if the circumstances match the fears of current governments.
This book needs to be read as a warning of what can happen when a 'democracy' panics.

 on: November 19, 2007, 01:36:20 PM 
Started by Seneca - Last post by Northlander
Indeed Germany had the moral victory at the end of the Great War (WW1) and Germany and Austro-Hungary paid a price for that position in the terms imposed at Versailles and in the Treaty of St. Germaine.

Although Germany was defeated her armies were still in the field. Not only in the field but still occupying the territory of enemy nations. (Hence in WW2 the Allies were determined to destroy Germany militarily, politically, economically and physically by invasion and occupation.)

In 1918 France took the opportunity to 'punish' Germany for the French defeat in 1871 at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. It was no triviality in the terms of surrender that France demanded the return of all French battle standards captured in 1871 and Germany had to scoure its museums in 1918/19 to ensure that this condition was met.

Germany may well have had the moral vistory but the Allies took a terrible revenge for the knowledge of it.

 on: October 21, 2007, 10:42:30 PM 
Started by Seneca - Last post by Seneca
Mortuo leoni et lepores insultant.
[even the rabbits jump on a dead lion]

As the father of a Nobel-prize winning “American” microbiologist Max Delbruck, historical truth-seeker and great German patriot Hans Delbruck noted:

“France and Russia entered the war with more than 5 million men, but Germany and Austria had not quite 3.5 million. The unsurpassed work capacity of the German army has obscured this truth for many Germans.”

To which one ought to add millions from Britain and her Empire [Lawrence James “The Rise & Fall of the British Empire”] AND 1,390,000 American combat soldiers out of 4,791,172 mobilized and serving in the US armed forces in WW1 [Harper & Brothers ‘’Encyclopedia of American History” 1953] to realize the incredible manpower odds stacked against Germany.

It is no accident that in April 1917 the peak success-time of Imperial German submarine warfare was occurring when America declare war on Germany. I read that as a sign that yet again an economic concern that contributed to the US commitment to war, despite Wilson’s genuine albeit misguided political idealism. Apart from FDR and Reagan I cannot find another American president who more sincerely expressed political idealism. IN the realm of politics the intention itself is not the measure of good or harm done by the subsequent action, one can have a perfectly well-intended aim and yet create a harrowing disaster.

During the war 1,319,000 American soldiers took part in active combat (organized in 42 infantry divisions out of which were committed 29 divisions with 1,000 officers and 27,000 men per division all of whom came out of 32 built-to-order training camps with facilities for 2,000,000 men total). In the second half of 1918 the American dependency on foreign shipping of supplies and men was finally overcome when 4,400,00 tons of war-related cargo arrived directly from the American Industrial Heartland Base to France unimpeded b(thanks to US Admiral Sims’ effective job by joining forces with the British fleet). The gentleman-general John “Blackjack” Pershing was assigned the command of US forces in Europe. His orders were “[US forces] were a distinct and separate component of the combined forces, the identity of which must be preserved.” The Allies did not appreciate that and insisted the Americans fit under the Franco-British command. A dichotomy ensued where certain things Pershing insisted on and certain ideas of the High Allied Command were accepted.
When in July 1918 the millionth American soldier arrived in France right in the middle of the 2nd Battle of the Marne in which 85,000 American soldiers participated, just in time to buttress the Allied counter-offensive launched by Foch between Aisne and Marne with additional 185,000 soldiers. This successful offensive destroyed the German Aisne salient.
The German-held St Mihiel salient was chosen for the US Army's first own offensive. Pershing and US 300,000 troops assembled at this sector in early September. The German High Command, aware the attack was coming, ordered a partial withdrawal of troops.

The withdrawal was still in progress when the US Army attacked on 12th September. A secondary assault, by 110,000 French troops, took place three hours later. Over 1,400 aircraft under the command of General William Mitchell, supported the advancing US and French troops. By 16th September, the entire St Mihiel salient was under Allied control.
In this engagement and during the German offensive of 1918 the U.S. Third Division earned its motto "Rock of the Marne", which some propagandically claim turned the “tide” on the Germans in WWI – but there was no longer a German military “tide” in the 2nd half of 1918 – just Lee’s lines at Petersburg with more potential for a defence-in-depth (Germany was on the ropes because of years of financial-industrial, propaganda, manpower and economic blockade pressure from the rival British and American industrial bases). Formed in 1917 at Camp Greene, North Carolina, the Third Division suffered minor casualties in six campaigns in six months of combat during WWI but earned fame in WW2 under General Patton’s leadership.

Following the successful Amiens and Albert offensives Marshal Ferdinand Foch decided to order an attack at Meuse-Argonne in an attempt to cut-off the entire German Second Army. General John Pershing was given overall command of the operation and American Expeditionary Force was given the main attacking role. Colonel George Marshall (the future head of the US armed forces in WW2), had the difficult task of bringing 400,000 troops from the successful St Mihiel campaign to take part in the Meuse-Argonne offensive on 26th September, 1918.
The US First Army, led by General Hunter Liggett, used more than 300 tanks in the offensive. The advance was supported by General William Mitchell and 500 aircraft from the United States Air Service. Two-thirds of the soldiers involved in the advance had just arrived from St Mihiel and the exhausted troops only advanced 3km along a 64km front on the first day. Progress remained slow and the offensive eventually came to a halt on 30th September.

The Meuse-Argonne offensive was resumed on 4th October. The German Army, with soldiers on 1000 calories a day and suffering from the influenza epidemic (which would soon claim millions around the world), held on until 4th November when they began to retreat. Fresh US troops were moved to the front and had advanced 32km when the Armistice was announced.

The fact that according to Historian Russel Weigley the German home-front was collapsing in relation to the war-front testifies to the strong national bond that made Germany in WW1 impressive in the eyes of History because no nation in history withstood so many assaults by so many different hosts from so many different directions at the same time (within a few short years) due to so many different schemes of conquest that were behind these assaults on the Austro-German position in Europe. Everyone ganged-up on Germany thinking it would be an easy mark. The inevitable Western world war however need not have assumed this form. There were plenty of opportunities for a different outcome and a different correlation of “allied” and “central powers.” To claim that Germany had to be the center of the world-storm is to misunderstand the history of those late years of a long peace (early 20th century). At every step of the way there were international crises brewing, the Moroccan of 1908 one being just one in a series. Also the Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina being another. The scandalous “Plan of San Diego” involving Japan and Mexico against the USA represented another potential focus for a coming world war. Be that as it may, the war accidentally started in the old Balkan flashpoint of the world. Just as in the Thirty Years’ War [when its statehood was aborted], Germany ended up fighting that war for its life and against every great-power corruption scheme of the world. It should have been a shame for the French to still demand satisfaction for such untold embarrassments and tragedies of WW1 in territorial acquisitions and it was no credit to Wilson that he included some avid imperialistic claims among his well-intended 14 points.

In that sense, Imperial Germany, the only Western country in which Aristocracy and Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat found a working MODUS VIVENDI for the sake of the common national good, carried a moral victory over the unsuspecting Allies whose world-headaches were just beginning in 1919 when cocktails were served in the smoke-filled parlours of the “triumphant” political salons of the so-called 'Allies'….

"Avidis, avidis Natura parum est." - Seneca

[The world itself is too small for the covetous natures.]

 on: October 10, 2007, 05:46:50 PM 
Started by MuslimInDeed - Last post by MuslimInDeed
[taken from http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/10/10/MNVASLM01.DTL]

Matthew Kalman, Chronicle Foreign Service

Wednesday, October 10, 2007

(10-10) 04:00 PDT Jerusalem --

Israel's most top secret security installations have been jeopardized by a new version of Google Earth, Israeli military experts say.

Satellite photographs of the sites, downloaded from Google Earth, were published last week on the front page of Israel's largest-selling newspaper. The latest version of the popular Internet mapping tool clearly shows sites viewed by the government as sensitive - such as the nation's classified nuclear research station in the Negev Desert city of Dimona, the headquarters of the Mossad spy agency, Israeli air force bases, the location of the Arrow missile defense system and the central military headquarters and Defense Ministry compound in Tel Aviv.

Yediot Ahronot, the Israeli daily that published the photographs on its front page, said the upgraded Web site is an "asset" to enemy states and a "treasure" to terrorists. Israel has spent decades and millions of dollars hiding these sites from public view. All are heavily guarded round-the-clock, and the location of the Mossad headquarters is a closely guarded secret. Reporters in Israel are forbidden from photographing or revealing any details about these locations under strict military censorship.

Israeli government and security officials refused to comment on the photographs. But a former military intelligence officer, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said: "Anything I say will be counterproductive. I think I'll avoid that issue completely."

But Professor Gerald Steinberg, chairman of the political science department at Bar-Ilan University in Ramat Gan, disagrees. He says Israel has been prepared for the new Google Earth images, which he says do not endanger Israel's security.

"Israel has had 10 years to prepare for this," said Steinberg, who helped draft an agreement with the United States limiting satellite resolution imagery. "It was the Clinton administration's policy to make available high-resolution imaging. Israel was granted a cushion which for clear security reasons does not put all the available information on the Internet.

"The satellite pictures were available before now to anyone with a few thousand dollars. They are not real-time pictures, and they were not taken yesterday. I don't think this is a major change in security."

The new high-resolution images, made available to Google Earth users last week, consist of one pixel per 2.4 square yards. Until now, previous images of Israel were limited to one pixel per 12 to 24 yards.

Cordy Griffiths, a Google spokesperson in London, said the images were upgraded last week in line with a Google Earth policy of improving its service to users. But Griffiths said all Google Earth images are bought from commercial satellite imaging companies and governed by the U.S.-Israel agreement.

"These new images fall within the law," said Griffiths. "It is higher resolution than the imagery we had before, but it is freely available material that we buy from third parties. The onus is on them to check that everything is legal."

Griffiths preferred not to answer whether Israeli officials have complained to Google since the new images were posted. "We would be happy to discuss any concerns the Israeli government might have," she said. "None of the images have been changed since the imagery update for Israel in Google Earth last week."

Griffiths also denied reports that Google images of India were deliberately blurred or distorted to protect security installations in that country.

"Google does not intentionally degrade or distort image quality. However, we use the imagery that comes to us from our data suppliers, some of which includes clearly blurred or degraded imagery. For example, an airbase in the Netherlands, the vice president's residence in Washington, D.C.," she said.

According to Israeli experts, the photographs in question are a year or two years old, and clearly show the layout of top-secret buildings. The photograph of the nuclear plant at Dimona shows the approach roads, internal walkways and individual buildings in a facility that is off-limits and hidden behind electric fences with large warnings signs and a complex array of cameras and other security devices.

The images also include Camp Rabin, the heavily guarded defense headquarters in central Tel Aviv that is surrounded by anti-terrorist blockades, a high wall and buildings with bomb-proof windows. It contains the underground bunker from which Israel's top generals command their military campaigns, as well as the offices of the prime minister, defense minister and Shin Bet secret service.

Moreover, the alleged Mossad headquarters, whose location is a highly protected secret, was identified and labeled by a Google Earth user.

"This contains a stock of information in which any intelligence body would be willing to invest a great deal of money and effort in order to get its hands on it," said Alex Fishman, Yediot Ahronot security correspondent. "Locating sensitive strategic and security facilities in Israel is a major objective for countries like Iran and Syria."

But political scientist Steinberg recalls similar fears when the first satellite photos of Dimona were declassified by the United States some 10 years ago.

"There was concern this would have a negative impact on Israeli security," he said. "It doesn't seem to have given any information to anyone that was used to carry out attacks."

 on: October 10, 2007, 05:40:14 PM 
Started by MuslimInDeed - Last post by MuslimInDeed
[from http://www.treasury.gov/press/releases/hp598.htm]

Treasury Designates Three Key Terrorist Financiers

The U.S. Department of the Treasury today designated as Specially Designated Global Terrorists (SDGTs) three individuals based in Saudi Arabia who have served as significant sources of financial and other support to individuals and entities in Southeast Asia previously named as SDGTs and listed pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1267.

"These three terrorist financiers were instrumental in raising money to fund terrorism outside of Saudi Arabia," said Stuart Levey, Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence. "In order to deter other would-be donors, it is important to hold these terrorists publicly accountable."

Abdul Rahim Al-Talhi, Muhammad `Abdallah Salih Sughayr, and Fahd Muhammad `Abd Al-`Aziz Al-Khashiban were designated for providing support to the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), an al Qaida-affiliated terrorist group responsible for multiple bombings, kidnappings and other terrorist attacks in Southeast Asia.

Today's action was taken pursuant to Executive Order 13224. E.O. 13224 is aimed at financially isolating terrorists and their support networks. Designations made under this authority freeze any assets the designees may have under U.S. jurisdiction and prohibit transactions by U.S. persons with the designees. This action under E.O. 13224 also implements yesterday's decision by the UN 1267 Committee to include these three persons on its Consolidated List of persons and entities associated with al Qaida, the Taliban, or Usama bin Laden. This UN decision obligates UN member countries around the world to freeze the assets of the designees.

Identifying Information

The three individuals who have been designated have been known by a variety of name spellings and aliases. Those can be found on the website of the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), http://www.treasury.gov/ofac.

Abdul Rahim Al-Talhi

ADDRESS: Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
DOB: December 8, 1961
POB: Al-Taif, Saudi Arabia
NATIONALITY: Saudi Arabian
PASSPORT: F275043, issued 05/29/04, expires 04/05/09

Abdul Rahim al-Talhi (al-Talhi) was designated under E.O. 13224 for providing support to the ASG. Al-Talhi is an al Qaida-affiliated financier, a loyal colleague of Usama bin Laden, and a member of a Saudi Arabia-based donor network funding terrorists and supporting extremist activity.

Al-Talhi provided financial and other assistance to the ASG in the Philippines for many years. In the early 1990s, al-Talhi visited the Philippines with the goal of financing the ASG in its fight against the Philippine government. By the mid-1990s, al-Talhi was providing the ASG with financial assistance derived from donors in Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. In addition, al-Talhi regularly supplied al Qaida ideological and training materials, including the al Qaida operations manual, to Philippine contacts.

In the late 1990s, Muhammad `Abdallah Salih Sughayr, who was also designated today, was selected to succeed al-Talhi as the principal backer of the ASG and its affiliates in the Philippines. Al-Talhi remained active, however. As of early 2003, al-Talhi was assisting Sughayr in obtaining financial support from Saudi Arabia-based extremist donors. As of December 2006, al-Talhi had helped groom ASG leaders.

Muhammad `Abdallah Salih Sughayr

DOB: August 20, 1972
Alternate DOB: August 10, 1972
POB: Al-Karawiya, Saudi Arabia
NATIONALITY: Saudi Arabian

Muhammad `Abdallah Salih Sughayr (Sughayr) was designated today under E.O. 13224 for supporting the ASG. Sughayr has a history of providing support to terrorist groups in Southeast Asia and has been identified as one of the major financial supporters of the ASG. Recent information indicates that he continues to be active in transferring funds to the Philippines.

In the late 1990s, unidentified Saudi extremist donors wishing to provide financial and ideological support to the ASG network in the Philippines selected Sughayr to be their principal conduit. Sughayr was to succeed Al-Talhi, a Saudi national and al Qaida-affiliated financier who had recently left the Philippines. Sughayr, however, continued to receive support from Al-Talhi. From 1998 to 2003, Sughayr ensured continued financial and ideological support to the ASG and its affiliates in the Philippines. He also facilitated unspecified weapons and ammunition shipments to the ASG and provided advice and assistance to the group. In addition, he recruited foreign fighters to fill out ASG ranks and gave specialized training in guerilla operations to the ASG.

In one instance in June 2004, Sughayr was made aware of certain ASG financial needs and deposited an unspecified sum of money into an account and alerted a possible ASG associate the deposit had been made. Also in 2004, Sughayr planned to send money for weapons to an ASG member. Sughayr was arrested by Philippine authorities in 2005 and subsequently deported to Saudi Arabia.

Fahd Muhammad `Abd Al-`Aziz Al-Khashiban

DOB: October 16, 1966
POB: `Aniza, Saudi Arabia
NATIONALITY: Saudi Arabian

Fahd Muhammad Abd Al-`Aziz Al-Khashiban (Khashiban) was designated today under E.O. 13224 for supporting the ASG, including ASG's leadership. In the early 2000s, Khashiban gave then-ASG leader Khadaffy Janjalani approximately US $18,000 to finance a planned ASG bombing operation targeting either the U.S. or the Australian embassy in Manila. Philippine authorities disrupted this plot before its completion, but Khashiban continued to routinely provide money to the ASG.

 on: September 02, 2007, 06:48:34 PM 
Started by MuslimInDeed - Last post by Seneca
I think one ought to re-write that as follows:

Author Michael Loewe's book is quite useful as the source of specific information on the deliberations and characters of Chinese History of Government - with anecdotes from recently translated and re-examined uncovered writings. The failing of this book is that it is very narrow-minded when it comes to interpreting the presented information in any broader historical sense. Here is where the Western political science indoctrination shows its mark on the mind of Mr. Loewe.

It is unpleasant to feel, after reading through some interesting chapters on the the structure of the Qin and Western Han empires that explain through specific examples Chinese foresight and expertise in running their world always with an eye to future value, and find that the author himself did not draw any significant conclusion from his own work but instead persists in a misunderstanding shown in the statements quoted below which reveals a lack of historical thinking in the concluding chapters of this book.

The author obviously is intrigued by the refined courtly etiquette and partly superfluous repetitiveness of forms that pervade the stalemated Chinese History after Qin. A comparable period in the West has only just begun - and perhaps he could be excused on that basis for his pro-Western bias based on incorrect comparisons. One should not compare Plato (who was not 'Western' any more than he was 'Arabian') with his nonexistence in the Chinese History - but Marx and Mozi, Hohenstaufen and Zhou dynasties. Each Culture must be treated deference as a unique phenomenon within whom however certain universal tendencies are immanent. Only a true expert of World-as-History would be able however to discern those and make proper comparisons. There are hardly any in an atmosphere of self-serving political agenda in which democracy is seen as the ultimate purpose of all existence, a post-modernist 'be all - end all' [a leftist strain that is woven into the fabric of the ruling political democratism ideology in the West] - which reveals the poverty of political thought.

..attempts to explain his suspicions of why ancient China lacked the Western concepts of justice - as if there is only one road that leads to one sense of justice - betrays a true lack of imagination] which is evident from the following quote/remark:

"IN intellectual terms, exercises in defining and explaining the values, needs and forms of government had reached a far more sophisticated level in the West than in the East, where a Plato, Aristotle or Cicero had yet to rise."

And what of Confucius, Mencius, Xunzi, Mozi, Laozi, deep thinkers like Han Fei, Lord Shang, Li Si, Fan Sui - how do they compare sophistication-wise to a practical weakling like Cicero?? For one, Loewe should not have jumped to such a conclusion without demonstrating his expertise on comparable ancient Chinese political thought.

What purpose does it serve to interpret History on the basis of such late 20th century sociological superiority obsession as Mr. Loewe displays in this book?

It must not be forgotten that every Civilization has its own different emphasis [this has to be recognized for once!], for example, Chinese record-keeping, wandering view of Nature, and a sense of past cannot even remotely compare to anything the Greeks and the Romans produced, and vice-versa [these same oligarchic but 'democratic' Classical peoples whose religious cults of city-gods were a normal part of every day secular political life!], obsessed as they had been with 'the here and the now' [carpe diem] allowing even Julius Caesar to boast in all innocence that he is a descendant of gods [and of Venus], unable to produce an accurate annual calendar for any city-state until Caesar commissioned Sosigenes of Alexandria to create the Julian Calendar, etc. But, as long as the ancient Chinese had an inferior political system to the contemporary Classical Greeks who could never run a large and well-functioning state....MOVIE "300" TO THE RESCUE!!! The Chinese must be the evil easterners of '300'

[that Mr. Loewe also ignores and contradicts Aristotle's and Plato's principled hatred for Greek democracy (placed at the lowest political scale) I suppose is besides the point in Mr. Loewe's argument... How can an unabashed ruler like Plato's favorite tyrant Dionysius of Syracuse compare to even a mediocre Chinese emperor in the point of state responsibility?]. The state structure of the numerous little nation-states of the Classical civilization was point-of-place-bound and managed ad-hoc - while even the weakest Chinese far-flung state was run like a ship-of-the-line in the sea of time.

Democracy is just an idea [exaggerated beyond all proportion to its real place in History] that is not even structurally the same between its only ancient example and the modern Western one [let alone in the practical domain of propaganda manipulation of the masses upon which Democratism is dependent unlike the Chinese one which was based on respect for the top more than the bottom of society, and it was Culturally rooted more than conceptually].

That is why it is a necessity - to treat the historical unknowns in a comprehensive way - so as not to allow the error of presumption of conceptual superiority to the exclusion of other concepts equally historically valid but alien to the historian's own thinking. In this sense Mr. Loewe failed to pass the test of objectivity.

In another spot Mr. Loewe [on page 119], in by now DE RIGEUR fashion, spills another bean of his narrow thought when he claims:

"Nor did those rulers [Chinese emperors] enjoy the benefits of theoretical or analytical writings such as those of Plato, Aristotle or Cicero."

For all his narrow-expertise on surviving Chinese writings from the Qin and Han periods - Loewe demonstrated a lack of knowledge of Legalist Classics whom he apparently does not deem worthy of democratic ideologues and apologists.

Legalist and Confucian schools of ideology formed themselves [corresponding in influence levels to the Classical Stoic and Epicurean-Sophist schools of ideas] their thinkers have indeed exercised an extremely profound influence, visionary immigrants to the Qin state - intellectual men of resolute action like Lord Shang, Fan Ju, Li Si and the aristocratic Chinese Metternich Han Fei the epigon of Legalism. Their thought exercised influence far longer in the course of historic time than the ideas of Aristotle and Plato - simply because the Chinese, unlike their Classical "Western" counterparts, managed to find ways to perpetuate their civilization, not without interruption, for 2 millennia.

M. Loewe is a competitive candidate for Oxford historian Sir Charles Oman's "Vulgarisateur" category of historians [from his 1939 book "On the Writing of History"] - a place he shares with, among others, Victor Davis Hanson. It would have been better for his legacy if Mr. Loewe confined his writing to the domain of narrow-expertise - which is where the FORTE of this book undoubtedly is - rather than venture into uncharted waters with a malfunctioning compass."

 on: September 01, 2007, 11:06:45 AM 
Started by Seneca - Last post by Seneca

While intermittently providing flashes of useful insight into the Qin state functions and some relevant comparisons between Europe and China processes, the book is loaded with forced-out comparisons that moreover do not rely on a professional old-school historical analysis involving the historian's own mind's eye sweep of historical evidence nor on the Time-honored and classic European analysis of Chinese history - but overdoses on very narrowly selective current American Political Science/Political Correctness choice of most often quoted sources [ie Margaret Levi, Levy Jack, Katznelson Ira, Thomas Ertman, etc. - and the proven enemy of all genuine historical life - dry logic philosopher IMMANUEL KANT of all people! - which goes to show that she does not understand at least some sources she is using]. It is a piece of American-made political science masquerading under a grand title as a piece of historical analysis. She OD-ed beyond all belief in a strictly casual relationships that exist more in the mind of the analyst than in the living content of history that must be felt first before it is understood.

Another crucial mistake at the foundation of her work is the mistaken comparison - 'early modern Europe' is just a self-centered intellectual concoction that is useless and denies and obscures the dignified horizon of History with modern politically correct speculative myopia that makes the offshoots of trees seem more important than the trees themselves. For one, she is comparing a period in History that has not fully ended at all yet - with a long-ago extinct period in History that fulfilled itself over 2,000 years ago!!!

Her work would need to wait for at least 100 more years to be able to compare the Chinese 3rd century BC in which the Qin won the world with the Western/European 21st century we are in now. What is clear [and escapes her notice altogether because her methods cannot even touch history as they expelled all feeling for Time - and merely lay out a few logical arguments supported by self-righteous evidence which excludes inconvenient facts] is that in the Western World of today [which is now the property of the entire globe, although still belatedly dictated from the West because of the form of dollar-imperialism it produces] there is still not a single state-winner - and moreover not even a hint of the one who leads as a soldier-ruler whose power is in the military [like Douglas MacArthur's could have been under different circumstances and had he not been such a political weakling] and who uses money exclusively for his political ambition to rule all alone.

She makes comparisons between historical periods that are not homologous and hardly even analogous, but that is because he does not respect these methods of real History and wants to force History and its content into the straight-jacket of causal relations that moreover are dictated by the prescriptions of modern liberal, secular Western democratism which is defeating itself in Iraq before the whole world today.

I can quote a lot of incredible statements in this book, such as :

"Just when Prussia was catching up with ancient Chinese developments, England embarked on a different self-strengthening model that was to divert early modern Europe from the logic of domination." - this is too sad and too ridiculous a statement to deserve commentary - but let it be said that Western Royal Absolutism of King Louis XIV, Frederick the Great and Leopold I Habsburg was definitely not based on any Chinese examples. King Frederick read profusely and preferred French language over German- avoided German any time he could - but did that make him any less German ?? England replaced the strong kingship its self-confident Puritan elites destroyed with the undemocratic and all the more-so effective institution of the Cabinet [starting with PM Walpole] - making it into a deeply enlightened aristocratic dictatorship using the parliamentary window-dressing/process. That is why continental European parliamentary democracies that arose on the strength of a mere popular passion for an ideal of government always ended up so frustrated with England's role and support. Victoria misunderstands too much about European history and borrows way, way too much from jejune and misleading modern American misconceptions and disguised hatred for History to be able to match her ambitious title with actual 'proof in the pudding.'

What Victoria also failed to mention and compare in her significant analysis of the discovered QIN LAW book is how it relates to King William's 'Domesday Book' that allowed Normans to rule the carved-out English booty of Hastings victory [which, although not homologically comparable, is certainly quite significantly functionally-related to Qin Law]. A missed opportunity!!

I see nothing but greatness and a sense of need to protect the sacred dignity of the State in Li Si's instruction to the Qin ruler to suppress the schools of opposition, one ought to at least see that side of the story EVEN IF ONE DISAPPROVES OF IT.

She also has not understood that the word 'oppression' only holds meaning for intellectuals - and that for the people of the land, free from the city-life - which in itself is always a form of oppression regardless of what political system runs it - has no meaning. The Chinese peasant ultimately accepted any ruler in the last 2000 years - because life has to go on.

Her biggest mistake is, and the one all such simplifiers of history make [although she made her subject infinitely more complex through her interruptive style similar to a typical modern American graduate student's treatment], is that her analysis never begins from the FACT but proceeds from theory, a perception, a quote or a notion she yearns to prove through quotes and some conjecture.

I recommend the 1939 book "On the Writing of History" by the famous old-school Oxford military Historian Sir Charles Oman - if that book is carefully read - one would understand the scholastic backing for my criticism. I do not need to start from Spengler's postulates, his significant conclusions were supported by the myriad quality works of History by other historians from that 'golden era' of History-writing a 100 years ago. It is very sad to see how superficial and how pusillanimous is all that load of writing out there rooted in American Political Science on theoretical steroids.

I think the best pages in her book are those from page 98 to page 108 - here she clearly pinpointed the subject matter she is familiar with and has some significant feelings for and consequently she quotes far less from of her sources that are bad than in other parts of the book. She quotes Darwin (the leftover Marx, the Marx of Biology) as her authority on inter-state relations. No comment.

Her book is mostly a nightmare to read because it is such a tightly woven chain of petty causes and effects. Her book is thus not a piece of history-writing but a piece of natural, or mostly political, science.

Overall, this book enticed me to buy it because it offered hope that there would be a first-ever serious modern historiographical attempt at functionally and homologicaly comparing two related but separate humanities, the Chinese and the Western one through the mirrors of their respective historical forms - only to find that the book does not measure up to that high ideal.

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